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Armen Vorobyov
Armen Vorobyov

Losing Consciousness (Original Mix)



However, when a person experiences diabetic shock or severe hypoglycemia, they may lose consciousness, have trouble speaking, and experience double vision. Early treatment is essential because blood sugar levels that stay low for too long can lead to seizures or diabetic coma.




Losing Consciousness (Original Mix)



The physical basis of consciousness remains elusive. Efforts to measure consciousness have generally been restricted to simple, scalar quantities which summarise the complexity of a system, inspired by integrated information theory, which links a multi-dimensional, informational structure to the contents of experience in a system. Due to the complexity of the definition of the structure, assessment of its utility as a measure of conscious arousal in a system has largely been ignored. In this manuscript we evaluate the utility of such an information structure in measuring the level of arousal in the fruit fly. Our results indicate that this structure can be more informative about the level of arousal in a system than even the single-value summary proposed by the theory itself. These results may push consciousness research towards the notion of multi-dimensional informational structures, instead of traditional scalar summaries.


While IIT offers a compelling theoretical account linking integrated information and consciousness, empirical applications of the theory remain rare [35]. Thus, whether empirically estimated integrated information structures relate to conscious arousal remains largely unknown. While we as yet cannot be certain of consciousness in flies, they pose an interesting system to apply the theory. In particular, regardless of consciousness per se, a purely feedforward brain should give zero integrated information and correspondingly a minimal informational structure. Thus, we address the following questions. First, how can we estimate informational structures from neural activity recorded from a biological system? Second, does the fly brain generate integrated information and non-minimal information structures? If it does, would the structures be collapsed during reduced arousal as manipulated using general anesthesia? And third, does integrated information and its associated information structures arise (and subsequently collapse during anesthesia) primarily in the central regions of the fly brain?


Finally, Fig 1H explains how IIT arrives at a purported measure of level of consciousness, system-level integrated information Φ, through a system-level disconnection. The process of identifying core causes and effects for each mechanism is repeated after making unidirectional disconnections to the full system, in the same manner as disconnecting mechanisms from purviews. System-level integrated information is the sum of EMDs between the full CES and the CES of the statistically disconnected system, weighted by the integrated information φ of each mechanism in the full CES (as depicted in the calculation between Fig 1H and 1G; see Methods). Once again, as there are many possible ways of disconnecting the system, we select the disconnection which best approximates the CES of the full, whole system (i.e. which generates the smallest weighted EMD between the full CES and the disconnected CES). Consequently, a completely feedforward system generates zero system-level integrated information, as the unidirectional disconnection of feedback connections (which are actually non-existent) will yield identical probability distributions for all mechanisms and thus an identical CES as the fully connected system. In the case of the 2-channel system AB, the minimal disconnection is the disconnection from B to A. This disconnected CES is used to assess system-level integrated information (for details, see Methods).


We also considered a computationally cheaper alternative to Φ. Specifically, we assessed a set of φ values, which we term Integrated Information Structure (IIS; Fig 1I), as an alternative measure for discriminating level of consciousness. A set of mechanism-level φ values are faster to compute, as they are already obtained as part of the computation of Φ. The IIS is an approximation of the full cause-effect structure proposed by IIT [39]. While the cause-effect structure requires causal intervention for building the TPM, here we only observe interactions as they naturally occur over time. Further, the full cause-effect structure holds details beyond just integrated information values, specifically the purviews of each mechanism and their associated probability distributions, whereas for simplicity the IIS only considers the integrated information values themselves. As system-level integrated information and the IIS are obtained for each possible state of the system, we averaged across these states, weighting by the occurrences of each state [40].


Fig 2 shows an example IIS obtained from 1 fly, 1 channel set during both wakefulness and anesthesia, when extending this process to the 4-channel case. IIT provides two main hypotheses for this paper: 1) system-level integrated information (Φ) should be reduced by general anesthesia, and 2) a set of mechanism-level integrated information (φ) values, the IIS, should also collapse during general anesthesia, reflected by reduced φ values for each mechanism (as opposed to increased φ for some mechanisms). While IIT does not explicitly predict the latter, we reasoned that level of consciousness should generally correlate with the richness of contents of consciousness. Note that these hypotheses here cannot directly confirm or invalidate IIT as a theory of consciousness, as the nature of insect consciousness is still unclear, and we do not apply every aspect of IIT (due to feasibility issues), which we expand on in the Discussion.


Given that integrated information is reduced during anesthesia, we asked if this decrease is more reliable for larger mechanisms. We also sought to determine whether considering the entire IIS allows for better discrimination conscious level than just consideration of single mechanisms, i.e. is the pattern of integrated information useful above and beyond considering independent integrated information values in isolation? As IIT proposes the scalar system-level integrated information value as the measure of conscious level (whereas the multi-dimensional IIS should represent experiential contents), we further compared this to the reliability of the decrease in system-level integrated information. While IIT touts system-level integrated information as a measure of conscious level, we reasoned that, as level of consciousness should generally correlate with the richness of its contents, the IIS would either match or even exceed the classification accuracy of system-level integrated information.


We were able to discriminate wakefulness from anesthesia in the majority of channel sets, using either integrated information values or system-level integrated information (Fig 5A). Further, classification accuracy varied significantly depending on what measure was used (LME testing for main effect of mechanism size (1- to 4-channels), IIS, and system-level integrated information; χ2(5) = 1.300 104, p


Finally, we tested if the reliability of using the IIS to distinguish wakefulness from anesthesia depended on spatial features (Fig 5C and 5D). Similar to the trends for the raw system-level integrated information values previously, we found significant trends between classification accuracy and channel set location. Classification accuracy increased as channel sets moved closer to the central brain (with channel 1 being the most central in the brain), for both within- and across-fly classification (Table 1), and slightly decreased as channels became more spaced out, also for both within- and across-fly classification. Thus, while the IIS collapsed throughout the brain, it was most reliable for central regions. These same trends were present for classification when using the system-level integrated information values (Fig 5E and 5F), though the trend of decreasing accuracy with more spaced out channels was not significant. Overall, using the IIS to discriminate level of consciousness in the fly brain yielded better classification accuracies, while maintaining the same spatial pattern of results as system-level integrated information. These results suggest that multidimensional measures may hold greater promise in distinguishing arousal states than more traditional single scalar value summaries of conscious level. 041b061a72


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